Vinegar Files

So, Ya Wanna Make Vinegar From Leftover Wine, Eh?

Overheard:
“Kim, what the heck is that gob of goo?” Or, “You’re Stinkin’ Up The Kitchen Again!” (geo t.)

Every now and then the topic of how to make vinegar from leftover wine pops up in casual conversation amongst us winos and foodies. Having been involved in vinegar-making for over 20 years I have amassed a nice little collection of articles and, of course, that wondrous gob of goo called Mother of Vinegar you seen on your left. (Click images to enlarge)

In a circa 1990 Detroit Free Press article, “Leftover Wine Can Make a Fine Vinegar,” then wine critic, Christopher Cook wrote, “It’s enough to make a wine lover cringe. All those bottoms of wine bottles that end up being dumped down Detroit sinks because they sat around uncorked a few days.” Well, that doesn’t happen too often around here at Gang Central, thank you very much!

Over the years, my crock of vinegar has been blessed with the dregs of incredible wines left over from large tastings. Every time I empty the bottom of a bottle of wine into the crocks I smile, knowing that the crock has thanked me.

Any Zinfandel, Cabernet, Merlot, etc. will do although there are vinegar sites out there that warn you not to use wines with added sulfites but I’ve never had a problem with that.  Once the wine is transformed (sometimes taking 6 months or more) the resulting vinegar is intense and with a smell so overpowering it indeed stinks up the kitchen – but it’s a good stink! Here’s how I started all those years ago…

Since I didn’t know of anyone who had a crock or a barrel of vinegar which contains the slimy Mother of Vinegar I let my fingers do the walking and found a hardware store on the east side of Detroit which specialized in wine-making supplies. (It has since closed.) They also stocked the  mycoderma aceti, the bacteria culture, used to make vinegar. It came in a jar and was clear, like water. I purchased it and a crock and was on my way.

When I arrived home, I dumped the bacteria culture into the crock along with two bottles of wine.  Over a period of three months I watched the wine transform into vinegar.  The transformation began when a hazy veil covered the liquid.  The veil is referred to as bacteria zoogloea. Undisturbed and relying on oxygen, the zoogloea forms on the surface of the vinegar to protect the contents underneath. As it grows it becomes leather-like but upon touching it you discover a slimy, slippery yet solid rubbery gelatinous mass  – like raw liver. If left undisturbed it will keep growing and could eventually take over the entire container. Allowing alcohol additions to wet the surface of the zoogloea cuts off oxygen. It will sink to the bottom lifeless allowing another to form to protect the contents (description partially taken from Brian J. Helsaple’s A – Z vinegar glossary which is no longer online).

Mother of Vinegar is defined as a slimy, gummy substance made up of various bacteria — specifically mycoderma aceti — that cause fermentation in wine and cider and turn them into vinegar. Known as mère de vinaigre in French and sometimes simply as “mother” in English, its growth is best fostered in a medium-warm environment (60°-85°F). The mother should be transferred to a new mixture or discarded once the liquid has turned to vinegar.

The Internet has several sites describing various ways on how to “properly” make vinegar and for all intents and purposes, they all work even if they seem to contradict each other.  One way is to set up a barrel, crock or jar with a funnel fit snugly into a plastic tube. Let the funnel sit on top of the jar or the barrel’s bung hole being careful to ensure that fruit flies cannot enter.  You may need to use cheesecloth. The idea here is let the mother grow on top, never disturbing it, while you feed fresh wine into the funnel. The resulting vinegar is removed via a spigot at the bottom of the barrel/jar/crock. This is great for testing the quality of your vinegar or drawing off finished vinegar without disturbing the mother. However, sludge may develop over time at the bottom of the container plugging the spigot.

Another way is to just keep adding fresh wine on top of the old mother which will cause the mother to sink and regrow on top.  You’ll need to clean out the old sunken mother once or twice a year.  If you don’t it will eventually fill up the jar leaving no room for liquid and it will “rot.” It shrinks and gets a sort of crinkled black edge.

I have used the second method for 20 years and currently have about 35 gallon jars and crocks squirreled away in my cupboards. I also have three oak barrels and a large Italian demijohn with a spigot and funnel/tube system which works well.

Once the vinegar is deemed ready (by taste and smell) I ladle out the resulting vinegar and strain it through several layers of coffee filters if I think it needs it.  This technique of removing any sludge or bits of floating Mother works well. The vinegar is dark and intense and better than anything you could buy in a store. If I’m careful with the ladle to not disturb the sludge at the bottom the vinegar will not be cloudy

DO’S and DON’TS

After your crock is established, try to feed your Mother every other week or so with a glass or two of wine.

Let your Mother breathe.  A linen napkin or cheesecloth works well if you are using a crock or jar.

Throw out or give away the slab of Mother once it sinks to the bottom of your crock.

Don’t add fortified wine (port, sherry, etc.) to your crock unless to add water to dilute the high alcohol content.

Other interesting tidbits:

You can use a slab of Mother from red wine to start a crock of white.  Some sites say that this won’t work but it does.

In an April 14, 1991 New York Times Magazine article “The Good Mother” by William L. Hamilton, Hamilton dumps both red and white wines into his barrel. Others say “don’t do that.” I’ve done it with no resulting problems. But I tend to keep red red and white white.

Feel free to ask questions below in the comments box.  On our old site when I originally published this article over 10 years ago I had hundreds of comments and words of wisdom but, alas, those are gone now.  So, let’s start over here.

Cheers,

Kim Adams

177 Responses to “Vinegar Files”

  • Debbie:

    Hi! I started my red wine vinegar April 21st- with a mother and a gallon glass container and covered it with red wine and cheesecloth. I have not done anything to it since- but it doesn’t yet smell of red wine vinegar? Do I need to do anything now? Or- just wait another few months? Thanks for your help!

    • Kim Adams:

      Hi Debbie – how much mother to how much wine did you mix? Was it just the glob of mother or was there a lot of liquid as well? One thing you might want to do is remove the slab temporarily and immerse a stick blender or electric beaters into the wine. Mix the heck out of it to incorporate a massive amount of air. Do this every day for 3-4 days then see if you notice any action in a month or so. What you are experiencing is not uncommon. It does happen from time-to-time. Don’t give up.

    • Debbie:

      Hi Kim! I added a jar of “Mother” to one small bottle of wine. I will try and stick a blender in there for the next 4 days and mix it up. I didn’t think I was supposed to touch it though? There is no blob in there though- it is all liquid? Thank you!

      • Debbie:

        Kim- I just found the jar I used. So- I added this jar that is 10.6 fluid ounces and the directions said add 16 ounces of red wine and 8 ounces of water. The jar had the mother in it- but also liquid as well. That is exactly what I did on April 21st- and haven’t added anything to it since then. Thanks- Debbie

        • Kim Adams:

          Yes, technically, you should leave it alone but it sounds like you have a “stuck” conversion. I get that every now and then. The stick blender technique really has worked well for me. When blending, blend the heck out of it. I mean blend it to the point of it almost foaming over. Keep doing this over the course of 4 days or so. The air just may jump start the conversation. If not, contact the company and have them send you a new jar or get your money back. Oh, and I would also add a fresh cup of wine – maybe even 2 cups. 16 ounces wine to 8 ounces of water seems off to me. But that’s me. I’m sure there are a lot of ways to do this. I would do a whole bottle of wine (750 ml) to 1 cup of water. And most of the time I don’t add any water especially is the alc content is above 14 %.

          • Debbie:

            Thanks for the info. I will do exactly as you said for the next 4 days and add some more wine too. Then- just let it sit for another month or so. I will let you know what happens! Debbie

  • Suzette Bannister:

    Hi, I’ve had a bottle of Italian red wine vinegar for about 6 months. About 4 weeks ago I noticed it had some strange “growths” in it. The vinegar is still clear (I’ve had vinegar turn cloudy before but this is completely different) and the growths are two separate things. One is round and floats up and down on the top, the second stays on the bottom and is larger, layered with distinct edges and folds. I’ve been using the vinegar and it tastes fine (and hasn’t made me sick yet). If the top round piece is the mother, what is the bottom part? If I can use the mother I’d like to try making my own vinegar and add it to a new jar with a bottle of red wine. Should I discard the larger piece? Thank you so much for your help and advice…..never made vinegar before and always wanted to try.

    • Suzette Bannister:

      I have a photo that shows the two separate pieces inside the bottle but don’t know how to send it to you…..if it would help. Thanks.

      • Kim Adams:

        It sounds to me like it is a mother growing. The one that’s layered on the bottom used to be at the top but sunk. They don’t sink by themselves. It takes movement of the vessel or the addition of fresh wine on top to make it sink. You probably don’t have very much in the bottle so I would start small, like maybe a pint. Once that’s vinegar and showing a healthy mother you can transfer it to a larger vessel. Is the mother on the bottom fresh looking or are the edges shrunken dried up in appearance? If it still looks fresh and plump go ahead and use it. Once you’ve made your first batch, toss it. Hope it works out for you.

  • Elizabeth:

    Hi, i have read some where that there is a maximum and minimum of percent of alcohol that should be present in the wine. Some of my wines are 14.4% and some are less. Is there a range that is bedt to have for making the vinegar?

    • Kim Adams:

      Hi Elizabeth. If I used a 14-16% alc wine I would add a cup of distilled water for every bottle. Lower than that I don’t bother. And according to Lawrence Digg’s Vinegar book he uses the following formula using any size measure. If you have 20% alcohol and you want 100 gallons of 10% for your vinegar stock you multiply 100 x 10% and divide it by 20% = 50 gallons of wine and the rest water. Or easier, divide 20 x 10=2 meaning that one gallon of 20% stock will make 2 gallons of 10% vinegar.

  • Zack renner:

    Hey
    So wine that has sulfites will still turn to vinegar?? The vinegar mother I bought said to not use wine that has sulfites or to remove them

    • Kim Adams:

      Hi Zack. Yes, wines with sulfites will turn to vinegar. Whites have more than dry reds. Sweet wines have more than dry wines. I don’t usually have a problem with any of the wines I use for vinegar making but sometimes my whites don’t work out well and it’s probably sulfites but I’m not certain.

  • Geoff Cohen:

    Hi Kim, I have started making my first batch of red wine vinegar. I bought a mother and it is in a one gallon glass jar. I have wine in the bottom, then the mother, and last, I added more wine since so much had evaporated.

    The wine I poured stayed on top of the mother.

    So now I see three layers; original wine, mother, and added wine. Is this normal?

    That is my one question!

    Geoff

    • Kim Adams:

      Hi Geoff. That is normal. Once you added the fresh wine on top of the mother you deprived the mother of oxygen. The jar will grow another but at some future point you should remove the old one.

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